ON LOVE; PART MCCCLXXXVI
FIRST IS THE GREAT COMMANDMENTS: “The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord: And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these” (Mark 12:29-31).
WHAT THEN IS LOVE? In a general sense love is benevolence, good will; that disposition of heart which inclines men to think favorably of their fellow men, and to do them good. In a theological sense, it includes supreme love to God, and universal good will to men. While this IS from an older definition of Charity, which IS rendered in the King James Bible from the same Greek word agape which IS generally rendered as Love, we should amend our own definition here to include the idea that in the reality of Love a man will accord to ALL men ALL things that he would accord to himself and to say that Love IS our thoughts and attitude of the equality of ALL men regardless of their outward nature or appearance…that ALL ARE equally children of Our One God.
PLUS THE EVER IMPORTANT AND HIGH IDEAL TAUGHT TO US BY THE CHRIST: “Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them” (Matthew 7:12).
We ended the last essay with some thoughts, a reprise if you will, of one of our main themes in writing this blog: the reality that we ARE One World, One Humanity with One God. While some world religions DO see this reality, others DO NOT quite understand its ramifications in the carnal lives of men. One of the biggest failures of many religions IS their sense of separation, the way that the divide humanity into religious segments: the Christian, the Muslim, the Buddhist, the Hindu and so on. While each of these, as well as those NOT listed, believes that their way IS the Way to God, the reality IS that NONE Truly ARE; it IS ONLY when we can grasp the Unity of Life, both carnal and spiritual, that we can Truly progress spiritually. Carnally men ARE different and the underlying reality shown us in the idea of One Humanity has never seemed enough to overcome the apparent differences caused by race and culture. It IS this Unity that the Christ taught us 2000 years ago as He reiterated and reinforced the spiritual theme of agape that had been given to the world 1500 years earlier by Moses in what the Master would call one of the Great Commandments….that “Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself“. Neither Moses nor Jesus have shown us that IS it ONLY those who we see as brothers that ARE our neighbor but rather ALL others ARE regardless of race or color, regardless of social status or culture and regardless of religion. Unfortunately the intended idea of this expression of agape has been diluted and changed by the religious; in Christianity this expression IS often portrayed as needed ONLY toward fellow Christians and the same type of philosophy IS likely True in many of the other religions. This sense of separation ofttimes even fails to see that the Christian community itself IS One; while being diverse in color and culture many still differentiate such differences. Much of the prejudices and hatreds that exist ARE ever more pronounce in religious communities and while this IS NOT universally True, such prejudices and hatreds still abound and afflict the church in ways that ARE NOT seen as wrong. The singular KEY to correcting this error in vision IS of course agape; in the reality of agape ALL such divisions and separations disappear against the reality of our theme of One World, One Humanity and One God. As we discussed in the last essay this dynamic IS changing but, unfortunately, it IS changing moreso in the secular world than in the religious and here we can ONLY speak in regard to America and Christianity; we ARE NOT versed in the philosophies and trends of other religions. In the end ALL must come to the reality that there IS but One Humanity and ALL of it lives on this One World.
This IS the primary goal of the whole concept of agape as it has been taught by the Master who took a rather undefined idea from the law of Moses and expanded it to reflect the intended reality of agape Love in the world. That it has taken 2000 years for this concept to be evidenced in this world IS likely NOT spiritually unexpected as the tides of change ARE slow and we should understand here that the trend toward agape today IS fraught with far too many contrary ideas, ideas based solely in the selfish attitudes of men. This selfishness IS based in the vanity that the Apostle Paul shows us saying that “the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in
hope, Because expectation that the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God” (Romans 8:20-21). Again we should explain the change from hope to expectation and because to that; as we discussed in the last essay, Strong’s tells us that the True ideas behind the Greek word elpis ARE that it IS: from a primary ἔλπω élpō (to anticipate, usually with pleasure); expectation (abstractly or concretely) or confidence 9a and while they list hope as an English word that can be rendered from it, they DID NOT mean that common idea of hope as it IS understood today, and idea which IS most always used in terms of wishful. From God’s perspective there IS NO hope as this wishful thinking but there IS an expectation that over time men will be able to free themselves from that vanity into which ALL men ARE born. Simply, God DOES NOT hope, neither Universally nor individually as the Souls of men which ARE grounded in agape, the very nature of the Godhead. God, individually and corporately, expects to be able to share the Truth with the carnal man through his Transformed carnal mind. The change from because to that IS much simpler; it IS based in Vincent’s commentary that regarding the phrase says: In hope because (ἐπ ‘ ἐλπίδι ὅτι) that The best texts transfer these words from the preceding verse, and construe with was made subject, rendering ὅτι that instead of because 4. Another idea that IS a diluted one from the King James Bible IS in regard to the phrase “shall be delivered“; this phrase IS from the Greek word eleutheroo which IS rendered by most in terms of being made or set free. This word IS rendered as such in Jesus’ words saying “If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free” (John 8:31-32) and should we connect the dots we can then understand that such freedom IS the result of that same expected Transformation. The doctrinal gist however IS that one will be delivered or made free by the hand of God and it IS ONLY when we can discover that the hand of God IS the Power of our own Souls which ARE ever One with the Godhead, can we Truly understand the realty of the vanity in which we live. While Paul’s words from Romans regarding this idea of vanity ARE yet construed by the churches as the ‘fall of man’, the reality IS simply that by birth into this world we ARE, as Souls, made separate from God as we lose sight of our True identity; we ARE born as infants that have NOT the capacity to DO ought but what we may learn. And learn we DO through our nurturing and indoctrination into the ways of the world and this dynamic IS constant across races, cultures, religions and any other term that separates mankind into groups. In effect we ARE born blinded to the realities of Life as we learn ONLY the carnal ideas and this regardless of what ‘group’ we ARE born into.
While the problems of the doctrines of men ARE far more expansive than the religious ideas that we generally discuss; it IS our nurturing and indoctrination that helps us to form whatsoever thoughts and attitudes will govern our early lives. And it IS the illusion that this IS the real and True Life that keeps us bound in this state of vanity where we then develop a sense of glamour that tells us that whatsoever group we ARE in and whatsoever we have been indoctrinated into IS True. While some can break free from this, the majority of men will continue in their illusion and glamour until such a point where one IS unsatisfied with what he has made himself to be if one should ever reach that point. Some of this majority of men can and DO partially revolt against their nurturing and indoctrination and this IS likely more True when their degree of learning the ways of the world and of their religious and cultural place IS NOT so strong as to forge immovable attitudes. This IS the effect of that vanity which Paul shows us IS our “bondage of corruption” and we should understand to be freed from this requires the actions of the man responding to the promptings of his Soul and NOT by any doctrinal ideas of rites and rituals or confessions and affirmations. While our birth into this world causes us to be separate from God, it also, through our nurturing and indoctrination, ‘forces’ us to begin pursuing false ends which ARE the ways of men in this world. These ideas, being separate from God and pursuing false ends ARE from Vincent’s defining ideas on the Greek word mataiotes which IS rendered as vanity. We should understand here that the idea of vanity IS a better choice that those rendered in other translations which include being “subjected to frustration” and “to futility” along with ideas that ARE clearly based in the ‘fall of man’ theology including “was subjected to God’s curse“, and that “Everything God made was changed to become useless“. Weymouth renders the idea as “the Creation fell into subjection to failure and unreality” and this IS a most accurate portrayal when the whole IS viewed from the perspective of the Soul which IS so subjected. The Greek word IS defined by Strong’s as inutility 9a which DOES NOT help us to understand the idea being presented while Thayer’s defines mataiotes as: what is devoid of truth and appropriateness; perverseness, depravation; frailty, want of vigor 9 with each of these ideas based upon the perceived intent of the passages which contain the Greek word. Thayer’s begins their commentary saying that mataiotes IS a purely Biblical and ecclesiastical word as they trace the idea through the Septuagint to Solomon’s words in Ecclesiastes where the idea of vanity abounds. While vanity, like so many other words, has a common understanding that DOES NOT pertain to the ideas of scripture, the Truth can be unlocked through Vincent’s words which amplify the ideas from Weymouth’s bible translation. Vincent tells us that the use of mataiotes in Romans IS: a perishable and decaying condition, separate from God, and pursuing false ends and, from a spiritual perspective we can surely see Weymouth’s idea that this vanity IS both men’s failure and their focus upon unreality which ARE both separate from God, and pursuing false ends. Can we see the point here? Can we see that from the perspective of the True man that his birth, his nurturing and his indoctrination have separated his consciousness, his heart if you will, from a sense of Truth and from the Godhead and that in his carnal condition he IS ever pursuing false ends and this because such ends ARE ALL that he has KNOWN? Vincent adds that: All which has not God for the true end of its being is μάταιος where this Greek word IS mataios, the root word for mataiotes, which IS rendered as vain and vanities 2a. Strong’s defines mataios as: empty, i.e. (literally) profitless, or (specially), an idol 9a and we should be careful here to remember that what IS vain IS profitless to the Soul whose objective IS to express his nature through his form which IS engrossed with an endless variety of idols.
The point here IS that this vanity IS ever contrary to the Truth that the Soul ever tries to flow into the personality, a Truth that IS agape and thereby the nature and the Way of God. Men’s vanity keeps them focused upon the self, the greatest of idols, and until such time as one’s vanity can be overcome, he IS yet caught in his own “bondage of corruption” from which the ONLY escape IS Repentance and Transformation. The dictates of doctrines, the rites and rituals, the confessions and affirmations, prescribed by the churches ARE NOT a viable substitute for men’s change of focus away from the self and onto the things of God; a change which IS the reality of that Repentance which Jesus came and preached to men saying such things as “Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Matthew 4:17). While the Way to the Kingdom IS clearly shown us by the Master, the doctrines of men paint a very different picture and should we see this picture in terms of an idol(s), we could then perhaps better understand the realities that ARE set before us. In our trifecta we have the Way to the Kingdom through keeping His words or, better, DOING “the will of my Father which is in heaven“. This IS stated very clearly for us as ARE the Master’s other Kingdom sayings, some of which we should list here and comment on:
- Jesus tells us “except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 5:20). The KEY here IS righteousness and we should look at the Pharisees according to their role in Jesus’ time and NOT in the revisionist views that many hold today. The Pharisee believed he was righteous and was seen by the masses as such; until Jesus there was little doubt regarding the righteousness of the religious leaders. Speaking then to the people who saw the Pharisees and other religious authorities as symbols of righteousness, the Master makes this comment which implies that the people must be more righteous that those that they believed were righteous. This likely sounded at first like an extremely difficult task by which one can “enter into the kingdom” but as Jesus continued in His teaching regarding the ways of the Pharisees, their hypocrisy and their concentration upon the ancillary parts of the law, this sense of difficultly should have waned. Jesus DID paint the Jews’ religious leaders as far less than righteous.
- the Master tells us that “Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 18:3). Two words here ARE important to understand; first IS the idea of being converted and second IS the way that men can “become as little children“. The Greek word rendered as converted IS strepho which IS rendered by others in terms of turning, of having a “change of heart” and in general ideas of changing in addition to the King James rendering. We should try to see how that this idea of changing or turning IS much the same as the effects of Repentance which Vincent shows us: has been rightly defined as Such a virtuous alteration of the mind and purpose as begets a like virtuous change in the life and practice 4. Both ideas, Repentance and conversion, should be understood as that change of focus off of the self and onto the things of God, off of “treasures upon earth” and onto “treasures in heaven” (Matthew 6:19, 20). It IS this change that should be understood in Paul’s saying that we should “be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God” (Romans 12:”2). The second word IS the phrase “become as little children” which idea should be understood as the result of being converted. The idea here IS found in the innocence of “little children” which, while they ARE being nurtured and indoctrinated, ARE NOT yet bound by the thoughts and their attitudes which they will eventually display; thoughts and attitudes about the carnal self and the role of that self in the world. We should try to see here that while vanity IS at play insofar as even “little children” ARE separate from God and ARE pursuing false ends, their sense of vanity IS NOT yet so fixed as to enforce their own ideas that ARE eventually founded in illusion and glamour. And this IS the KEY to the Master’s words here: that men must shed their vanity, their illusion and their glamour, and ‘reunite’ with God while changing their focus to pursuing the things of God. This IS the Way to the Kingdom and this IS NOT an exclusive point but one that must be seen together with other like teachings on that Way.
- Our next point IS from an opposite perspective, a negative one that IS the opposite of being converted, and becoming “as little children“. The Master tells us, in words that have been constantly reinterpreted by the churches and their doctrines, that “Verily I say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven. And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God” (Matthew 19:23-24). While these words ARE attached to the exchange between the rich young ruler and Jesus regarding the Kingdom and eternal Life, they ARE NOT directed to him but to the Master’s disciples and ARE offered as a matter of fact. We should note here that there IS some leeway here that IS NOT defined for us but IS implied in the ideas that “a rich man shall hardly enter” and that “It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle“. Strong’s defines dyskolos which IS rendered as hardly as impracticably 9a while Thayer’s tells us that the idea here IS with difficulty 9; both of these defining ideas show us that while NOT impossible, attaining the Kingdom as a rich man IS impracticable and can ONLY be attained with difficulty. We should note here that impracticable IS defined as: not practicable; incapable of being put into practice with the available means* which idea further shows us the difficulty. These ideas of impracticability and difficulty ARE dismissed by the doctrines of men which ‘refuse‘ to see the Truth of Jesus’ words while they teach ‘believers‘ on the goals and successes in this world in terms of riches and ALL its associated ideas. The Master’s words ARE however clear and succinct as ARE so many of His sayings that apply to the spiritual successes of men.
- Finally we have Jesus’ words to Nicodemus, words that have been bastardized by the church and applied to their own doctrinal sense of ‘salvation‘….words that have been hijacked if you will. Jesus says “Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God….Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God” (John 3:5). The Master’s point here IS ‘regeneration’ which idea IS largely misunderstood; being “born again” IS NOT the product of rites and rituals nor affirmations and confessions, Being “born again” IS the product of our Repentance and our Transformation through which we come to KNOW. It IS in our Repentance and our Transformation that we come to KNOW God, KNOW the nature of Life in this world which IS perhaps the greatest of mysteries and the one intended by Paul who tells us of “the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from generations, but now is made manifest to his saints: To whom God would make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory” (Colossians 1:26-27). This mystery IS of course the idea of God in man and should we be able to understand this as God in every man as the Apostle John shows us saying that the Christ IS “the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world“, we can perhaps move closer to seeing the reality of the concept of agape that shows us One World, One Humanity with One God. However, so long as the doctrines of men, most ALL of Christian doctrines to be sure, teach that it IS ONLY the doctrinal Christian that can have Christ, or God or the Holy Spirit in their lives, the mystery will remain as such despite the way that so many claim to be “born again” and to be among those saints to whom the Truth IS revealed.
The reality of Life IS that ALL can be “born again” by the interaction of their own Soul with their mortal personalities and we should try to see how that this interaction IS attained ONLY through Repentance and Transformation. These ARE that change of focus, that virtuous alteration of the mind and purpose as begets a like virtuous change in the life and practice 4, that results, through our Transformation, in our keeping His words and our ever increasing expression of agape. This IS the point of most ALL of the New Testament which should be seen as a guide book to spiritual Truth based in the words of Jesus and the amplifying and clarifying words of His apostles. It IS this guidebook that is summarized for us in our trifecta of spiritual reality where the Master’s own words show us the way to His Kingdom, to His Truth and to the Truth of His Presence, the Christ Within, in our lives. Repeating our trifecta we read;
- “If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free” (John 8:31-32).
- “Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven” (Matthew 7:21).
- “He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father’s which sent me” (John 14:21-24).
Of course the most salient of Jesus’ points on attaining the Kingdom IS found as the second part of our trifecta; here we should clearly see that prima facie way of DOING so IS in keeping His words. It IS in keeping His words that we ARE Truly “born again” and while the Master frames this as DOING “the will of my Father which is in heaven“, the reality IS the same. To be “born again” IS to be “born of water and of the Spirit” and while this saying IS much disputed regarding the idea of water, the idea of spirit should be clearly understood to mean that one IS ‘regenerated‘ through the inflow of spiritual energies from the Soul to the personality which we should understand as existing in a body that IS largely water. We should understand that the physical birth of a child IS his freedom from his watery existance in the womb and while this may be a part of Jesus’ reference, it IS unlikely His main point. In this watery existance a child IS formed and we should understand here that it IS when this child IS born that it becomes a person imbued with Life as a human; this can happen at any time after the embryo’s attainment of viability. There IS much to be learned regarding this and it IS in our better understanding of Life that we can begin to glimpse the Truth around the pro-choice versus pro-life debate that consumes much of Christianity. A child then IS born out of his watery existance in the womb and becomes a viable human being and we should try to understand here that in the absence of the Life given by the Soul, there IS NO living being. Perhaps here we can see the idea that to be “born of water” IS but a part of the reality of living. From this perspective ALL ARE “born of water“; it IS this that makes one a person. Being born “of the Spirit” however IS a very different reality and one that IS covered by the Master throughout His words. Paul too shows us the reality saying that “ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you” (Romans 8:9) and while many attend to the first part of this saying, few keep it combined with the reality of the last part. Too many take possession of the idea that “ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit” based in their doctrinal philosophies but few understand the added criteria for being “in the Spirit” which IS “that the Spirit of God dwell in you“. This can be confusing as from our perspective “the Spirit of God” dwells in everyman but has little or NO influence upon the Life of a man. The influence comes according to the Master’s words that ARE the third part of our trifecta where a sort of conversion can take place as the Soul, the Christ Within, becomes KNOWN to a man and begins to influence his Life’s focus. Jesus frames this saying “If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him” and here we should see that while the Soul IS ever the central Life of a man, it IS in keeping His words, in Repentance, that one realizes the Soul’s influence. Can we see the point here? Can we see that being born “of the Spirit” IS to have “the Spirit of God dwell in you” as a conscious realization which brings into the personality the expression of agape as one’s True evidence that “the Spirit of God dwell in you“; True evidence that one IS “born again“.
The combinations of ideas here can be endless but the singular intent IS found in the idea that being “born again” IS NOT a static idea as doctrines portray this; being “born again” IS to keep His words and to become in this world an expression of that Love that is agape. How DO we KNOW that “the Spirit of God dwell in you“? Paul tells us that “he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you” (Romans 8:11) and we should try to see that this quickening IS the Life of the Soul, the Christ Within, taking possession of the personality; this IS being “born again“. How DO we KNOW that “the Spirit of God dwell in you“? Paul also tells us that “if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live” and this saying plays upon the many references to Life and death from a spiritual perspective in the Master’s words and throughout the New Testament. We should try to see that to be “born again“, to have attained His Kingdom and to KNOW the Truth that “shall make you free” ARE ALL synonymous ideas and that to the Truly “born again” comes that “righteousness shall exceed the righteousness” of any and ALL that ARE doctrinally religious. This sense of righteousness IS forever tied to our expression of Love as without such expression we ARE neither righteous nor “born again“; it IS in the freedom of KNOWING the Truth and understanding the mysteries that we “become as little children” as we lose our self-centered thoughts and attitudes. It IS in ALL of this that we find the Kingdom and come to KNOW that it IS here and now, that it IS NOT some far off place to go at our death….Lord willing. And ALL of this, ALL of these criteria, ARE part of the Life of everyman who can express that agape, that spiritual force that can and will change the world as we ARE freed from our self-centeredness, our prejudices and our hatreds based on those carnal ideas into which we ARE nurtured and indoctrinated. This brings us again to Paul’s words that ARE our selection, his words on Love and how to KNOW that what we may see as agape IS NOT men’s carnal interpretations that ARE based in the common understanding of the idea of Love. Repeating our selection we read:
“covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way. Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not
charityagape, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charityagape, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charityagape, it profiteth me nothing. CharityAgape suffereth long, and is kind; charityagape envieth not; charityagape vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. CharityAgape never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away. When I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child: but when I became a man, I put away childish things. For now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity” (1 Corinthians 12:31, 13:1-13).
Again we must repeat that while much of the church holds dear the idea of “spiritual gifts” they fail to understand Paul’s words that show us that these ARE worthless in the absence of our expression of agape. The word here IS agape and NOT that common understanding of Love that has embedded itself into the spiritual ideas of many, an understanding of Love that maintains the prejudices and hatreds of men and especially their focus upon the self and the things of the self. Agape IS Universal while the carnal ideas of Love ARE specific towards certain others and even things and while the Master teaches against such Love for certain others, the message has NOT been received. When we can see the ideas that Paul presents on what IS and what IS NOT the product of agape in one’s Life in Universal tones, we can then perhaps understand how that the apostle’s words ARE but an amplification and a clarification of the Master’s teachings. Considering even the carnal ideas applied to Paul’s words that tell us that Love IS patient and Love IS kind, as well as his whole assortment of ideas on what agape IS and IS NOT, ARE NOT a wasted effort when such ideas can be applied Universally to ALL men, to each and every neighbor. While a direct understanding of the concept of agape IS the preferred Way, the carnal ideas rightly directed to ALL, can also be a beneficial Way to a better understanding of the concept of One World, One Humanity and One God; either way these can become a clearer objective. In the next essay we will continue with our discussion of Paul’s words on agape with our understanding that the carnal ideas applied over the centuries DO NOT reveal the depth that the apostle intended while remembering that even the carnal ideas applied to the Greek words can help change the world when they ARE viewed Universally and NOT ONLY toward those we choose to Love.
We will continue with our thoughts in the next post.
- 4 Word Studies in the New Testament; Marvin R Vincent D.D. 2nd edition
- 9 Thayer’s Greek Lexicon on blueletterbible.org
- 9a The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible on blueletterbible.org
- * Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020
Those who walk on the well-trodden path always throw stones at those who are showing a new road.
Voltaire, Writer and Philosopher