ON LOVE; PART MCCLXXXVIII
GoodWill IS Love in Action
FIRST IS THE GREAT COMMANDMENTS: “The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord: And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these” (Mark 12:29-31).
WHAT THEN IS LOVE? In a general sense love is benevolence, good will; that disposition of heart which inclines men to think favorably of their fellow men, and to do them good. In a theological sense, it includes supreme love to God, and universal good will to men. While this IS from an older definition of Charity, which IS rendered in the King James Bible from the same Greek word agape which IS generally rendered as Love, we should amend our own definition here to include the idea that in the reality of Love a man will accord to ALL men ALL things that he would accord to himself and to say that Love IS our thoughts and attitude of the equality of ALL men regardless of their outward nature or appearance…that ALL ARE equally children of Our One God.
PLUS THE EVER IMPORTANT AND HIGH IDEAL TAUGHT TO US BY THE CHRIST: “Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them” (Matthew 7:12).
We ended the last essay with some thoughts on the Apostle Paul’s listing of the “the fruit of the Spirit” where we did get to the first two words, Love and joy. We noted that the next word, peace, IS from the noun form of the same word that IS used by the Apostle James where the idea IS rendered as peaceable. Love IS of course agape, the most basic building block of spiritual Truth and we should note that this IS first in Paul’s list likely for two reasons. First that ALL other components of the list can be seen in the central idea of agape and secondly because the whole idea of this section of his writing to the Galatians IS concerning agape and a little attended saying on faith and Love, that they should exercise “faith which worketh by love” (Galatians 5:6); this should show us his point. Add to this what he tells us regarding the law and that his tenor on this IS NOT against the law itself but against the treatment of the law by the Jews’ traditions; this should be seen as his point throughout his seemingly antagonistic attitude toward the law. We should try to see that Paul IS coming from a position where the ancillary parts of the law reigned supreme, where such ideas as circumcision, the sabbath and holy day observances and sacrifice had become the Jew’s view of the law rather than the Truly primary ideas of Love. In the apostle’s idea that “Christ hath made us free” we should try to see that this freedom IS found in the words of the Master and not in Paul’s attempts to sell them on what have become the most misunderstood doctrinal precepts concerning the law and faith. It IS the ancillary ideas against which Paul writes as he encourages the Galatians to “be not entangled again with the yoke of bondage“. We should be able to see this in the way that he attaches the Truly primary idea of Love as the Way to avoid the “the yoke of bondage” through its expression. It IS this that we should see in his words saying “all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself” (Galatians 5:8, 1, 14).
Paul tells us that “the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, Meekness, temperance” and in this he adds that “against such there is no law” (Galatians 5:22, 23). Here we should try to see and understand that while doctrines presume that he IS speaking to the gentiles, he IS speaking to the Jews of things that they should understand and telling them that if they DO as the Master teaches that they ARE keeping the law and that they ARE DOING so as was originally intended….through agape. This idea IS the foundation of the list that the apostle gives us; in joy we should see that the Greek word chara IS a kindred word to charis which IS grace. And, if we can look here at these ideas with an understanding that grace IS ALL that comes from the Godhead and that this idea of joy IS the expression of that grace to others, we can then see the action of agape in the Life of the man who has such “fruit of the Spirit” active in his Life. Again while James’ list concerns the incoming thoughts and ideas, the spiritual revelations and realizations of a man, Paul’s list concerns his expression of these thoughts and ideas which ARE Truly that “wisdom that is from above“. Paul’s use IS evident as he uses the contrast between the “fruit of the Spirit” and “the works of the flesh” (Galatians 5:19). Paul’s next word, eirene which IS rendered as peace, gives us the same idea as DOES James use of eirenekos which IS rendered as peaceable. James IS showing us that “wisdom that is from above” has this quality of peace as we discussed while Paul IS showing us that this same sense of peace IS to be expressed in one’s expression of agape, in one’s expression of “the fruit of the Spirit“. Again, this idea of peace should be understood as Jesus’ uses this idea in such sayings as “Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid” (John 14:27)….as a state of mind and of being.
Paul’s next word IS longsuffering which IS rendered from the Greek makrothymia which IS generally understood in terms of patience. Most translations use patience and longsuffering and while these may be a good quality for a man to have, they have little to DO with the flow of Truth and Love from the Soul. Vincent refers us to the kindred word makrothymeō which IS the verb form and for this word we find the idea of: to be long-spirited 9a according to Strong’s. Vincent seems to hold that this idea IS to be understood as restraint while he cites others who call this persistent endurance; he adds that as: Trench observes, “ ὑπομονή is perseverantia and patientia both in one 4. In his own words Vincent tells us that makrothymeō IS: a patient holding out under trial; a long-protracted restraint of the soul from yielding to passion, especially the passion of anger 4. If we can let these ideas take on the spiritual slant offered in the idea of to be long-spirited we can perhaps see that makrothymeō flows into the Life of a man from the Spirit and while the idea may contribute such things as perseverance, restraint, and endurance interpreted into longsuffering and patience, there IS much more. The Soul quality of makrothymia reaches out into the Life of the man who has such “fruit of the Spirit” and allows him to see that ALL that there IS against him IS of NO consequence as he stands upon the singular Truth of Love, much in the same way as Jesus faced His accusers and the Apostle Stephen faced his demise. Can we see the point here? Can we understand that in this “fruit of the Spirit” there IS a calm and a peace that makes moot ALL worldly concerns and which we should see in Paul’s words to the Philippians saying “Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God. And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus” (Philippians 4:6-7)? Paul’s words here reflect the same idea as the Master as he uses the same word as Jesus’ saying “Take no thought for your life” (Matthew 6:25). Rendered as careful in Paul’s saying and as “thought” in Jesus words, merimnao IS another Greek word that IS largely misunderstood and this most likely because of the ramifications of seeing it as it IS presented in Jesus’ saying
“Take no thought for your life“.
Taken literally this idea shows us the same unimportance of Life in this world as DO many of the Master’s other sayings but this idea was unfathomable to the early church and IS yet today. This idea however works into the general tenor of Jesus’ teachings as he tells us of the ideas of focus upon the things of God with such sayings as “where your treasure is, there will your heart be also” where He instructs us on what direction of thought we should use. This idea IS also diluted by the doctrines of men who hold that the idea here IS simply wealth and possessions; few see the universal idea of treasure and of mammon of which He tells us that “Ye cannot serve God and mammon” (Matthew 6:21, 24). We should also see this sense of unimportance in His description of the disciple while understanding that the objective IS a True relationship with the Lord rather than the pseudo relationships found in men’s doctrinal teachings. Jesus tells us that “whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple” (Luke 14:33) and this same thought should be understood in the way that Matthew presents it….that without such forsaking a man “is not worthy of me” (Matthew 10:37). None of these ideas IS accepted literally yet they ARE the words of Jesus, words that have been diluted and changed to suit the carnal thoughts and ideas of men; thoughts and ideas that ARE thought to be Wisdom but Truly ARE wisdom that “descendeth not from above“.
Vincent helps us to understand this idea of merimnao which IS a critical concept in our overall understanding of the Truth; he tells us on the rendered idea of “take no thought” that: The cognate noun is μέριμνα , care, which was formerly derived from μερίς , a part; μερίζω , to divide; and was explained accordingly as a dividing care, distracting the heart from the true object of life, This has been abandoned, however, and the word is placed in a group which carries the common notion of earnest thoughtfulness. It may include the ideas of worry and anxiety, and may emphasize these, but not necessarily 4. The main idea to take from this IS the reality of the original meaning of merimnao which IS a dividing care, distracting the heart from the true object of life and in this we can see the idea which we apply, the idea of focus. In the doctrinal view the idea of “take no thought” has become one of worry and anxiety ONLY but, as Vincent tells us, this IS NOT the primary idea even in the replaced understanding of merimnao as earnest thoughtfulness. Vincent goes on to give us some other examples of the use of the root word merimna and then goes on to say that: In all these the sense of worry would be entirely out of place 4. He then writes contrary to this as he implies that worry and anxiety can be seen in such sayings as “the care of this world” from Matthew’s version of the Parable of the Sower and, in regard to Luke’s version, he sees the same in “and are choked with cares“. Vincent tells us that in these cases the idea of worry is prominent and
merimna IS rendered as such in several translations. He then goes on to explain that in the idea of “take no thought” that: Take thought, in this passage, was a truthful rendering when the A. V. was made, since thought was then used as equivalent to anxiety or solicitude 4. Here he cites Shakespeare and Bacon for this explanation but if we can see the simple idea of focus in both these cares and in the thought that one should take on things of Life, we can then see beyond the carnal and into the spiritual. The Parable of the Sower references ARE in regard to the seed sown “among the thorns“; Matthew tells us that “He also that received seed among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful” (Matthew 13:22). In this as well as Luke’s reference where we read “when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection” (Luke 8:14), there IS NO real link to the idea of worry or that of anxiety. In both there IS the idea of focus and show that the focus of the man who has received the word “among the thorns“ of Life ARE focused upon the “cares and riches and pleasures of this life“, NOT in worry about them but in attention to them.
We should understand that the idea of thorns IS NOT meaningless and that such refers to the desire of a man to break out of the vanity in which he lives but DOES NOT have the wherewithal to DO so; he IS therefore more comfortable remaining in his “bondage of corruption” (Romans 8:20, 21). The way out IS clearly set for us in terms that ARE NOT so appealing to the man yet under the spell of his own vanity by which he chooses to remain rather that to escape “the corruption that is in the world through lust” (2 Peter 1:4). We should try to see here that it IS desire that IS the foundation of the “cares and riches and pleasures of this life” and that vanity and corruption ARE the basis for one’s “care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches“. It IS this affliction of vanity which keeps men bound to their own desire Life and it IS this vanity that causes him to find clever ideas to explain away the Truth of the Master’s words; this afflicts ALL whose thoughts ARE on their Life here in this world. And the religious ARE NOT immune, they ARE in fact leaders in finding such clever ideas as to proclaim that the idea in Jesus’ words IS worry which IS much easier for men in this world to assimilate than IS the idea of thought and focus. Vincent concludes his thoughts on merimnao saying: The word has entirely lost this meaning. Bishop Lightfoot (“On a Fresh Revision of the New Testament”) says: “I have heard of a political economist alleging this passage as an objection to the moral teaching of the sermon on the mount, on the ground that it encouraged, nay, commanded, a reckless neglect of the future.” It is uneasiness and worry about the future which our Lord condemns here, and therefore Rev. rightly translates be not anxious 4. We of course DO NOT agree with this idea of uneasiness and worry which has become the view of nearly ALL in the church; our view IS much more literal and in accord with so much of the Master’s other instructions for the man whose focus IS upon God. Here again we turn to the Master’s own view of His Life in this Earth or, better, the lack of a view through which He gave Himself over to His own demise. Again we should remember Stephen and the trials and tribulations that the Apostle Paul willingly submitted to through his own understanding of the True Life of the Soul. Paul gives his own account of the very idea of “take no thought” saying of himself that he is: “in labours more abundant, in stripes above measure, in prisons more frequent, in deaths oft. Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes save one. Thrice was I beaten with rods, once was I stoned, thrice I suffered shipwreck, a night and a day I have been in the deep; In journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by mine own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness, in perils in the sea, in perils among false brethren” (2 Corinthians 23-26). Can we see the point here and by this can we see the Master’s charge “That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also” (Matthew 5:39).
In ALL of this we should be able to see the idea behind makrothymia and understand that this IS far beyond patience and endurance and while longsuffering IS a better choice of ideas, it IS still lacking. We should remember here that we ARE speaking of a spiritual concept and NOT a carnal one and in ALL of these things that ARE “the fruit of the Spirit” we should see just that idea….that these ARE “of the Spirit“. To see makrothymeo in terms of the defining idea from Strong’s, to be long-spirited 9a, or from Thayer’s where this IS framed as to be of a long spirit 9, we should be able to understand that this fruit IS the effect of spiritual Truth on the Life of the man in this world. With this fruit he sees the Truth and in accepting it sees how that the vanity of Life had so beclouded his former thoughts but that now he IS free from “the care of this world“; he IS ready to take his stand with Paul and Stephen and even Jesus and to “Take no thought for your life“. This IS a major milestone in True spiritual living. Repeating Paul’s list of “the fruit of the Spirit” we read: “the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, Meekness, temperance”
Paul’s next word as rendered as gentleness and again, while this may be a carnal virtue, it IS just that; as a spiritual fruit however this idea fails as such fruits ARE ever expressions of Truth and Love. The rendering by most others of chrēstotēs as kindness IS equally weak as is the idea of benignity which IS used by the Catholic Bible Douay-Rheims. In other places the idea IS rendered in terms of good and goodness. We should understand here that the Greek word chrēstotēs IS defined by Strong’s as usefulness 9a while Thayer’s tells us this IS moral goodness and integrity, benignity and kindness
9a with these ideas shown according to the supposed usage of the word which IS ONLY used by Paul. The root word here IS chrēstos which is the noun form and which IS defined as useful by Strong’s and rendered in terms of good, kind and better in most uses, this except for Jesus’ use in His saying “my yoke is easy, and my burden is light” (Matthew 11:30) where it IS rendered as easy. Vincent tells us of chrēstotēs that: The radical idea of the word is profitableness 4, and here we should see usefulness over goodness as the inherent meaning. Can we see that the ideas presented by Strong’s and by Vincent shows us a very different view of just what this fruit IS? It may result in a sense of kindness and gentleness for the man whose focus IS Truly upon God but here we should try to see that this IS True regardless of the use of this idea; the man whose focus IS True IS perforce gentle and kind in the same way as IS the Master. Vincent offers us an idea that in these words there ARE three distinct meanings saying that: Christ’s yoke is wholesome, serviceable, kindly and then going on to tell us that the three meanings combine in the word, though it is impossible to find an English word which combines them all 4. This latter idea IS True for the translation of many Greek words into English and IS responsible for the varied way that many words ARE rendered; this idea IS taken advantage of by those whose translations ARE based in their own sense of doctrine where words ARE assigned meaning according to the supposed usage of the word. In this word and its varied implied meanings we should try to see Vincent’s point to a greater effect and understand that most ALL of the ideas applied to it recognize the carnal effect of chrēstotēs and NOT the spiritual import. We should note here that the idea of goodness IS NOT used by any of the translators for this verse and this because Paul’s next word IS agathōsynē which IS always rendered in terms of good. Again, while gentleness and kindness may be the result of chrēstotēs in the Life of a man, these ARE NOT the proper view of this as a fruit. In the idea of profitableness however we may have a glimpse of the fuller idea and this in relationship to the Master’s words on the opposite idea.
There IS a degree of uncertainty regarding the etymology of chrēstotēs and this from the way that the root words ARE presented, using such ideas as perhaps. Our point here IS that this word traces back to the Greek word cheir which Strong’s shows us saying: perhaps from the base of G5494 in the sense of its congener the base of G5490 (through the idea of hollowness for grasping); the hand (literally or figuratively (power); especially (by Hebraism) a means or instrument):—hand 9a. This of course means little in regard to our current context. In Luke’s Gospel we find the idea of unprofitable which IS from the Greek word achreios, a word that IS used ONLY twice in the New Testament; once where Jesus tells us “So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants: we have done that which was our duty to do” (Luke 17:10). The other use IS in His words saying “cast ye the unprofitable servant into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth” where He shows this comparison to those whom He calls “thou good and faithful servant” (Matthew 25:30, 21). This word achreios traces back to the same Greek word cheir and in this we should see the relationship between the idea of
chrēstotēs as profitable and achreios as unprofitable. Here we remember Vincent’s comments on chrēstotēs, that The radical idea of the word is profitableness 4. If we can here take these ideas into the spiritual context which IS “the fruit of the Spirit” and its expression in the Life of the man who has such fruit working in his Life, we can then perhaps see that chrēstotēs gives us the idea that such fruit becomes profitable, from a purely spiritual view, in the Life of that man; here we should see that the idea IS NOT that such IS profitable to the man himself but IS rather useful as his expression of the fruit effects others. This brings us back again to the Strong’s defining idea of chrēstotēs which IS simply usefulness 9a. Can we see here how that the whole idea of chrēstotēs IS much more than the doctrinal ideas of gentleness and kindness which ARE but the carnal effects of ALL these fruits in the expression of the man whose focus IS upon the Lord? We should NOT forget that we have come upon this discussion of Paul’s words by way of our discussion of the words of the Apostle James on that “wisdom that is from above” and the relationship between these lists through agape; our view of this IS based in James’ saying that Wisdom IS “without partiality” which IS the same as that defining quality of Love that James shows us as having NO “respect to persons“; repeating James’ words we read:
“Who is a wise man and endued with knowledge among you? let him shew out of a good conversation his works with meekness of wisdom. But if ye have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth. This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish. For where envying and strife is, there is confusion and every evil work. But the wisdom that is from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, and easy to be intreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy. And the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace of them that make peace” (James 3:13-18).
Continuing with our pause in discussing James we come to Paul’s next word which IS rendered as goodness from the Greek word agathōsynē. The root word here IS agathos which IS most always rendered in terms of good and here Strong’s tells us that this IS: a primary word; “good” (in any sense, often as noun)9a; seemingly based in its usage, Thayer’s tells us that agathos IS: of good constitution or nature; useful, salutary; good, pleasant, agreeable, joyful, happy; excellent, distinguished; upright, honourable 9. Our word agathōsynē IS the noun form of this idea of which Thayer’s tells us this IS: uprightness of heart and life 9 and Strong’s gives us simply goodness 9a. The meaning of this word IS easily seen as good and goodness and we should note that these virtues ARE again component parts of the expression of everyman whose focus IS upon the things of God with NO separate idea being necessary to inform its presence. In Paul’s citing of agathōsynē as a part of the nature of
“the fruit of the Spirit” we should be able to see deeper into the idea of which goodness IS but a carnal view. To see this more clearly we need ONLY go to Jesus’ words as He says to the rich young man “Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God” (Mark 10:18). Here we have the Truth that “there is none good but one, that is, God” and when we can see that this IS also the nature of the God and Christ Within, the Spirit and Soul of man, we can then see how that the flow of goodness comes in “the fruit of the Spirit” and becomes the expression of the man in the world whose focus IS upon God. Can we see the point here? Can we see that we must here divorce the carnal concepts of good from the Truth of good as shown us in Jesus’ words.
Paul’s next word IS pistis which IS rendered here as faith. Faith IS a concept that has been wholly hijacked by the doctrines of men and taken away from it True defining idea which IS based in that KNOWING of which the Master says “If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free“. We have often disucussed how that the ideas behind both pistis and pisteuo should be seen in terms of KNOWING and NOT in the way of that nebulous faith of doctrines and here in this context of pistis being a “fruit of the Spirit” we can perhaps shed some additional Light upon this Truth. In Paul’s list of “the fruit of the Spirit” we have purely spiritual concepts that flow into the Life of a man whose focus IS upon the Lord and we should note here that we CAN NOT emphasize enough that such fruit flows from the Soul in the revelations and realizations into the minds of men. Among these fruits IS pistis and here we should see that True pistis, True KNOWING faith, comes to us as Jesus tells us above and that there IS NO difference here between the ideas of Wisdom and Truth which ARE these revelations and realizations. It IS the KNOWING that provides the defining ideas of pistis which Strong’s defines for us as persuasion 9a and in which idea we should see how that the minds of men ARE persuaded by pistis and it IS this persuasion that IS one’s faith from the perspective of the man in the world. Without the link of True KNOWING which comes to the man who keeps His words there IS NO True faith as this IS the very source of KNOWING. Jesus shows us this correlation between KNOWING without doubt and faith in the various ways that His words on moving the mountain ARE given us by the gospel writers. In their approaches to the Master’s Truth we can clearly see that “faith as a grain of mustard seed” (Matthew 17:20), the idea that one “shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe” (Mark 11:23) and that “If ye have faith, and doubt not” ALL result in one’s ability to “say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be done” (Matthew 21:21)….these ideas ARE ALL the same AND ARE that same KNOWING which brings the Truth to those that “continue in my word” as Jesus tells us above.
For men to think, to believe or have faith, that such Power can come into the Life of a man who IS NOT in accord with His words IS folly and rather than to reach out into the possibility that “nothing shall be impossible unto you” based in this idea of KNOWING, doctrinal thinkers have discounted the Master’s words as well as His use of another form of the ‘miracle’ which Luke shows us saying “If ye had faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye might say unto this sycamine tree, Be thou plucked up by the root, and be thou planted in the sea; and it should obey you” (Luke 17:6). From a carnal view this IS as impossible as IS moving the mountain but here we should remember that in this KNOWING “nothing shall be impossible unto you“. To be sure, the nebulous faith of doctrines will NOT yield such results unless such faith IS flowing into one’s Life in those revelations and realization that come to the man who will keep His words which idea we read again in our trifecta:
- “If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed; And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free” (John 8:31-32).
- “Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father which is in heaven” (Matthew 7:21).
- “He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world? Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. He that loveth me not keepeth not my sayings: and the word which ye hear is not mine, but the Father’s which sent me” (John 14:21-24).
We should see the same idea in that kindred word to pistis, pisteuo which IS rendered in terms of believing but which means essentially that same idea of KNOWING; it IS used interchangeably with pistis in Jesus words above. Further, Jesus shows us the power of pisteuo as He tells us that “Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also; and greater works than these shall he do” (John 14:12). IS there any difference between the idea that “nothing shall be impossible unto you” and this idea of “greater works“? The answer IS of course NO and both can be the Way of the man who can “believe into” the Master which idea Vincent shows us as to accept and adopt His precepts and example as binding upon the life 4.
We will continue with our thoughts in the next post.
Let the peace of God rule in your hearts
- 1 Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1828 and 1913 from https://1828.mshaffer.com/
- 2 New Testament Greek Lexicon on BibleStudyTools.com
- 4 Word Studies in the New Testament; Marvin R Vincent D.D. 2nd edition
- 8 Bible commentaries on BibleStudyTools.com
- 9a The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible on blueletterbible.org
- 9 Thayer’s Greek Lexicon on blueletterbible.org
- * Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2018
Those who walk on the well-trodden path always throw stones at those who are showing a new road.
Voltaire, Writer and Philosopher